The Oncoming Burst of the China Credit Bubble

History has proven that credit bubbles always burst. China by far is the biggest credit bubble in the world today. We lay out the proof herein. There are many indicators signaling that the bursting of the China credit bubble is imminent, which we also enumerate. The bursting of the China credit bubble poses tremendous risk of global contagion because it coincides with record valuations for equities, real estate, and risky credit around the world.

The Bank for International Settlements(BIS) has identified an important warning signal to identify credit bubbles that are poised to trigger a banking crisis across different countries: Unsustainable credit growth relative to gross domestic product (GDP) in the household and (non-financial) corporate sector. Three large(G-20) countries are flashing warning signals today for impending banking crises based on such imbalances :China, Canada, and Australia.

china credit bubble

The three credit bubbles shown in the chart above are connected. Canada and Australia export raw materials to China and have been part of China’s excessive housing and infrastructure expansion over the last two decades. In turn, these countries have been significant recipients of capi
tal inflows from Chinese real estate speculators that have contributed to Canadian and Australian housing bubbles. In all three countries, domestic credit-to-GDP expansion financed by banks has created asset bubbles in self-reinforcing but unsustainable fashion.

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Post the 2008 global financial crisis, the world’s central bankers have kept interest rates low and delivered just the right amount of quantitative easing in aggregate to levitate global debt, equity, and real estate valuations to the highest they have ever been relative to income. Across all sectors of the world economy: household, corporate, government, and financial, the world’s aggregate debt relative to its collective GDP (gross world product) is the highest it has ever been.

Central banks have pumped up the valuation of equities too. The S&P 500 has a cyclically adjusted P/E of almost 30 versus a median of 16, exceeded only in 1929 and the 2000 tech bubble. The US markets are also in a valuation bubble because US-owned financial assets have never been more richly
valued relative to income as we show below. The picture is equally frothy if we include real estate, also at record valuations to income. China’s capital outflow spillover from its credit bubble has driven up real estate valuations around the world.

Read the full article here

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How To Reduce Risk in Stock Markets

Leverage – Debt increases risk. The easiest way to reduce your risk is to not have leverage, especially margin leverage, in your portfolio. Margin leverage is one of the few ways that you can be correct in your investment analysis, and ultimately in the result, but still lose money. It’s not worth it.

The second easiest way to reduce your risk is to not invest in companies that have excessive leverage. Having excessive debt on a company’s balance sheet can lead to problems. Having excessive debt also limits opportunities. One of the key components to the “Balance sheet to income statement investing” that I advocate is the ability for a company to take on debt when they see an unusually attractive opportunity. Better to buy a company with little debt and a strong balance sheet that can use that strength to safely take advantage of those opportunities by adding a reasonable amount of debt. They can’t do it if they are already overleveraged.

risk in stock markets

Margin of safety – Let’s go to Michael Mauboussin quoting Warren Buffett, “We believe the best and most practical way to restate the margin of safety
concept is to think about discounts to expected value. The combination of probabilities and potential outcomes determine expected value.”

Says Buffett, “Take the probability of loss times the amount of possible loss from the probability of gain times the amount of possible gain. That is what we’re trying to do. It’s imperfect, but that’s what it’s all about.”
A large margin of safety is helpful for many reasons. One, it gives you the opportunity for outsized gains. Two, it mitigates the effects of mistakes in analysis. And three, it helps protect against unknowable and unforeseen market and company-specific stresses.

Know your investment well – In order to know if you have a margin of safety, you must know your investment well enough to roughly determine its intrinsic value. Or, if you want to take the Mauboussin approach, determine the expected value. Clearly you must have the skillset to analyze a company. You also have to have the humility to recognize that the intrinsic value cannot be determined for some, perhaps most, companies. Other times the intrinsic value can be determined, just not by you. There is no shame in having a “too hard” pile. Mine is high.

I am attracted to companies where there are a low number of variables that are at least somewhat measurable. This is easier to do if you are relying on a company’s balance sheet rather than their income statement. It is also far easier for a company to manipulate their income statement, so this approach has the added benefit of higher predictability. Some investors believe that just because a company is small, it is more risky. This isn’t true. Those investors think that because a stock price moves more rapidly, a stock is more risky. They’re mistaken. Intelligently investing in smaller companies can dramatically reduce your risk. Most of the least risky companies I have invested in have been small. They were not risky specifically because of their low price relative to their actual value. They also were much easier to analyze.

Temperament – Here is where the self-awareness and Intellectual honesty fit in. This is a never-ending process and it is not easy. Nearly every investor, including the best, have succumbed to the market’s excitement and depression at one point. I don’t think it makes me a hippy to say that it is vital to protect your psychological wellbeing. Effective analysis consists of thousands of small judgments while researching a company. It’s a big risk if you can’t make those judgments with a clear head. This is also where ideology can blind you, and being blind as an investor is a dangerous thing. An investor always has to be mentally prepared to the idea that he is wrong, and if so, be willing to change his opinion.

Read the full insightful report from Arquitos Capital Management here

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Post Graduate Certificate Programme in Private Banking (PGCPPB) – ICFL & IMI New Delhi

International Management Institute (IMI), New Delhi one of the top B-schools having gold standard benchmark and ICICIdirect Centre for Financial Learning an educational initiative of ICICI Securities announce the launch of Post Graduate Certificate Programme in Private Banking.
As per a Business Standard report (December 2016) Wealth Management business in India is poised to grow by 17-18% each year, for the next few years. Private banking is an in-demand and highly dynamic area of Finance, with demanding expectations from Professionals working in this field. The PGCP in Private Banking will help address these high expectations with a focused curricula & by covering topics that are fundamental to the field.

private banking

International Management Institute (IMI) New Delhi was established in 1981 in collaboration with IMI Geneva (now IMD Lausanne). IMI is India’s first corporate sponsored Business School with sponsorship from corporate houses like RPG Enterprises, Nestle, ITC, SAIL, Tata Chemicals, BOC and Williamson & Magor, etc. In the last 36 years, this institute has truly managed to acquire a global status.

ICICIdirect Centre for Financial Learning is an educational initiative of ICICI Securities Ltd. ICFL is committed to enhance financial literacy amongst all existing and prospective stakeholders in the society by empowering them to make better and more informed decisions. ICFL is also committed to lead the path to create next-generation leaders who would catalyse the growth of financial markets in India, by expanding the pool of qualified and certified professionals for the industry.

Post Graduate Certificate Programme in Private Banking

Courses in Private Banking provide an insight into what it takes to operate successfully in this field. Private banking is an in-demand and
highly dynamic area of finance, with demanding expectations from professionals working in the field. This course will not only address these high standards with a focused curricula on these areas, but also cover topics that are fundamental to the field. Due to the fact that private bankers work extensively with private persons and high-net-worth individuals (HNIs), regulatory fluency and practical expertise is required in investment and banking services. These include estate planning, tax advisory services and managing investment portfolios. As a result, a private banking course leads to a wide and varied range of skills. It is worth noting that private bankers are sometimes referred to as wealth, investment or relationship managers, which is mirrored in the titles of some professional training courses on offer. While some argue that these are synonyms, others maintain that the growing complexity of the industry has resulted in the relationship side of the role (focusing on sales and customer service) becoming distinct from the investment side, which focuses on the more technical responsibilities related to managing different asset classes on behalf of the client.

This programme is designed to be both practical and interactive, with structured discussions allowing participants and expert speakers to freely share insights. This programme will address key issues through lively session discussions based on case studies/workshops. This certification programme will provide participants a unique opportunity to interact with seasoned experts and leading practitioners in the industry, while exposing them to competing approaches and strategies in the new challenging environment.

Who Should Attend?

  • Executives working the BFSI sector
  • Professionals working as Private Bankers, Wealth Managers, Relationship Managers, Trust Managers, Investment Managers, etc.
  • Family Office Managers
  • Department Heads working in the Banking and Financial Services Industry
  • Graduates who want to make a career in the BFSI sector

Eligibility

  • Graduates / Post Graduates from a recognised university

Fees

  • Rs 200000 + taxes (EMI options available)

Course Activity

course activity

Course Architecture

  • Campus visit – Orientation Programme at IMI New Delhi for 5 days (30 hours)
  • Training of 11 Core Modules through ICFL Virtual Classrooms (170 hours)
  • Certification from IMI New Delhi
  • IMI New Delhi Alumni Status

Detailed Course Curriculum

  1. Orientation programme at IMI New Delhi for 5 days (30 Hours)
    For Residential Participants:
    Rs 3,000 per day per participant.
    i.e. Total Rs 15,000 for 5 days (inclusive of single-seated AC accommodation with all meals, teas, snacks each day plus applicable tax)
  2. For Non-Residential Participants:
    Rs 1,200 per day per participant.
    i.e. Total Rs 6,000 for 5 days (inclusive of breakfast, lunch, tea, snacks during the teaching hours plus applicable tax)

Basics of Accounting at IMI New Delhi Delhi – 30 hours

  1. Understanding Financial Statements (10 Hours)
    Accounting Concepts and Conventions
    Introduction to Financial Statements
    Basic understanding of Financial Statements; Balance Sheet and P&L Account
    Understanding of Financial Analysis; Horizontal and Vertical
    Ratio Analysis
  2. Business Mathematics (10 Hours)
  3. Basics of Excel (10 Hours)

core modules

For more details on the course, please contact ICFL Branches at

Bengaluru – Cunningham Road      +91 9108683683
Delhi – Jhandewala Extension        +91 8588816146
Mumbai – Andheri East                  +91 8451943442
Pune – F C College Road                 +91 8390904865
Hyderabad – Somajiguda                +91 8427484084
Kolkata – Shakespeare Sarani Road +91 8697748207

Email – learning@icicisecurities.com
Website – learning.icicidirect.com
SMS – PGCPB to 5676766

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Indian Cities to See Fastest Growth in Asia Over Five Years

Delhi will have the fastest growth of any city in Asia, with the economy to be almost 50 percent larger in 2021 than it was at the end of last year. Indian cities are set to expand the most across the region, with growth speeding up from the past 5 years, according to a new study from Oxford Economics, which ranked Asia’s 30 largest cities. With financial and business services projected to be the fastest growing sector in India, Delhi’s dominance in this industry will lead to higher growth and higher incomes. “Limits on foreign ownership of Indian companies are gradually being reduced or eliminated,” wrote Mark Britton, lead economist on the report. “In the short term this is conducive to strong growth in Delhi’s professional services sector, as overseas investors seek advice on possible deals, while long term it should mean steady income streams for such businesses.”

indian_citiesConsumer companies such as Japan’s Muji are also betting on that change. Parent company Ryohin Keikaku Co. sees India becoming its second largest international market, after China. And Amazon.com Inc.’s Indian unit is seeking approval to invest in a food supply chain and take advantage of government moves to ease rules on foreign retailers. China’s expansion will slow, although the largest five cities will still be recording growth rates of 6 percent or more. There will be a slight slowdown across the region amid moderating import demand from China, with growth expected to average 4.2 percent per year over the five years to 2021, down from 4.5 percent in 2012-2016. Even so, that’s still much faster than the developed economies and cities in the region – and that’s a big opportunity for companies. Starbucks Corp. plans to almost double the number of stores it has in mainland China by 2021, and McDonald’s Corp. plans to add 2,000 new restaurants over the same period. Both companies recently announced they were buying out their partners in Mainland China and taking control of operations.

However, there are significant differences across the region. Japanese cities are likely to remain at the bottom amid a challenging demographic outlook, with Osaka last in the rankings as its working-age population falls by approximately 1 percent per year, the report said. Tianjin is forecast to clock the fastest growth in China, given that it has a large manufacturing base and one of the nation’s busiest ports. However, as the services sector expands, the manufacturing and shipping industries may prove to be less supportive in future. Ho Chi Minh was the only non-Indian city in the top five, reflecting the city’s success in establishing itself as a manufacturing center, as well as its strong services sector.

  • Bloomberg

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ThaiBev To Buy KFC Restaurants in Thailand

Thai Beverage, the spirits giant that makes Chang beer and SangSom rum, is expanding into the fast-food business to take advantage of the rising appetite for fried chicken in Asia. ThaiBev agreed to purchase more than 240 existing KFC restaurants in Thailand for about 11.3 billion Thai baht ($340 million). A deal is also in place for the company to take over stores that are being developed, with the cost of those locations to be determined when the transaction closes, according to a filing. KFC is operated by Louisville, Kentucky-based Yum! Brands Inc., which also runs the Taco Bell and Pizza Hut chains. Billionaire Chairman Charoen Sirivadhanabhakdi, who founded the company, has been seeking to diversify ThaiBev’s operations for years, with a goal of generating more revenue from nonalcoholic beverages by 2020. The fast-food push comes as Western restaurant companies increasingly target Asia as a key market for growth. For Thai Beverage, the KFC deal is a bid to seize on the popularity of chicken in Asia, according to Nirgunan Tiruchelvam, a director at Religare Capital Markets in Singapore.

thaibev

“The KFC acquisition is a very good way of exposing oneself to the rise of quick-service restaurants in Asia, especially the rise of chicken consumption,” he said. Emerging-market demand for KFC is strong, and the concept has a local focus in each market. The brand is centered around a protein with few belief-based dietary restrictions, giving it a broad base of potential customers. Yum, which spun off its China division last year, is seeking to accelerate development of its Pizza Hut, KFC and Taco Bell brands, particularly in overseas markets. At the same time, Yum aims to become 98% franchised by the end of fiscal 2018. Thailand accounted for 2 percent of KFC’s sales in emerging markets last quarter. It was the only region in that division that saw sales drop year-over-year, posting a 2 percent decline.  Charoen previously expanded his property business amid government measures to curb alcohol consumption in Buddhist Thailand. He was ultimately forced to list the company unit in Singapore in 2006 after activists and monks held protests to block a local share sale by the company.

The company’s long-term strategy involves generating 50 percent of its revenue from countries outside Thailand and nonalcoholic beverage by 2020. That’s expected to drive more deals in the region. Sales outside that country amounted to less than 4 percent in the last fiscal year, according to data compiled by Bloomberg. “Thai Beverage is a company that is looking to expand in the food and beverage space in Southeast Asia,” Tiruchelvam said. “It has very strong core cash flow from its spirits business, and it’s expanding into other areas.”

  • Bloomberg

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Reliance Industries Plans Refinancing of Its $12 Billion Debt

Reliance Industries Ltd. plans to refinance a significant portion of about $12 billion of borrowings that mature over the next three years and may sell bonds to repay the debt, according to company executives with knowledge of the matter. India’s largest company by market value will repay some of the debt coming due, mostly bonds and interest, the officials said, asking not to be identified discussing confidential matters. Reliance’s repayments from 2018 through 2020 will be its biggest for any previous three-year period and include about $8.14 billion of term loans, $3.52 billion of bonds and a $300 million revolver loan, according to data compiled by Bloomberg. It also has about $1.65 billion of interest payments, the data show.

reliance

Reliance’s borrowings have ballooned over the past five years as the group invested in building its telecom business, a pet coke gasification unit and in expanding petrochemicals capacities. The plan to tap the bond market is part of a larger trend that’s seen Indian corporates choosing bonds over loans for the first time in at least a decade. One of the fastest economic growth rates in the world and Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s reforms have attracted global funds to India, reducing costs for issuers. “There is a lot of appetite among investors for Indian issuers,” said Raj Kothari, head of trading at Jay Capital Ltd. in London. “Reliance being the biggest company from India with solid finances, there would be no challenges for the company in refinancing its debt.”

Controlled by second-richest Asian Mukesh Ambani, Reliance has sufficient cash though it won’t use it to repay maturing debt as the company’s credit ratings and strong finances enable it to raise funds at competitive rates, the people said. A Reliance spokesman did not respond to an email seeking comment. S&P Global Ratings has a BBB+ score on Reliance’s long-term debt, two levels above the sovereign; while Moody’s has the company at Baa2, a notch above the Indian government. Reliance’s $1 billion 4.125 percent 2025 notes was quoted at 139 basis points over U.S. treasuries, the tightest spread since issuance, and lower than the average of 185 basis points on an index of Indian investment-grade debt compiled by Bank of America Merrill Lynch. The company earned about 94 billion rupees, or about a quarter of the company’s profit before tax, in the year ended March by investing its surplus cash in interest bank deposits, debt securities and other instruments, according to its annual report.

Reliance has yet to decide whether to raise the funds for refinancing through local- or foreign-currency bonds, according to the people. The company hasn’t decided on the timing of any new issuance or on the amount it plans to raise, though it will probably use several tranches as debt matures, they said. India’s second-largest oil refiner had outstanding debt of more than $31 billion as on June 30 and cash of about $11 billion. Reliance generated an operating profit of about 147 billion rupees ($2.3 billion) in the quarter ended June, which suggests that the figure could be around 588 billion rupees for this financial year. Reliance’s reported debt numbers may actually increase over the next two to three years due to planned investments of about 550 billion rupees in the current fiscal and a “significant payment” due for capital spending and deferred liabilities, Kotak Securities had said in a report last month.

  • Bloomberg

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Dominos Gets Leaner As It Serves Fatter Pizzas

Domino’s Pizza will offer more cheese and toppings and a softer crust at no added costs. It’s partly due to a lower Goods and Services Tax, Pratik Pota, chief executive officer at Jubilant Foodworks Ltd., the owner of the pizza chain’s franchise in India, told BloombergQuint in an interview. Total levies on quick service restaurants like Domino’s have come down to 18 percent from over 20 percent earlier. There’s more to it. Pota is focussing on the performance of each store, has scaled down expansion and cut discounts to boost profits at India’s largest pizza chain. He’s also shutting down non-performing stores and reducing headcount. The effort is to improve quality and profits, said Aditya Joshi, research analyst at Anand Rathi Shares and Stock Broking. The new CEO replaced the buy-one-get-one free offer with everyday value to focus on profitability and a shorter break-even period, he said.

dominos

Jubilant Foodworks opened 13 new Domino’s outlets and one Dunkin’ Donuts store in the three months ended June. It closed five pizza and nine Dunkin’ Donuts outlets during the quarter. The company will add 40-50 new stores in the ongoing financial year, less than half of what it opened in the previous year. Jubilant Foodworks had 1,125 pizza stores across 264 cities and 55 Dunkin’ Donuts outlets in 15 cities as of June 30, according to its filing to exchanges. “Pota is expected to drive higher SSG (same-store-sales growth) through value offering strategy and closure of non-profitable stores,” brokerage Edelweiss Securities Ltd. said in a report after the company announced its April-June results. The number of employees per store too has come down. A Domino’s outlet had 21 staffers in the quarter ended June, down from 22 in the previous three months and 23 in the year-ago period, the company said in a conference call with analysts.

There is a possibility that the number will go down further and the company is exploring ways to use technology extensively, said Pota, who took over in April. He has worked at India’s largest consumer goods maker Hindustan Unilever Ltd. and beverage giant PepsiCo. We remain open to ways which will help drive efficiencies, improve productivity and towards that, we use technology extensively in our stores and techniques like six sigma to improve and reduce the headcount. Pratik Pota, Chief Executive Officer, Jubilant Foodworks

The chain commands 72 percent share in the organised pizza market, Edelweiss said in its report quoting Euromonitor International.  Jubilant Foodworks told analysts it targets to cut the losses at its Dunkin’ Donuts franchise by half in the ongoing financial year and turn them profitable over the next two years. “As of now, we are not contemplating to close the brand,” Hari Bhartia, co-chairman and director at Jubilant Foodworks, said in the conference call. “We are hopeful with all the good initiatives that have been done. We are starting to see very good results.”

  • Bloomberg

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Tata Sons Hiring Bankers to Help Sell or Merge Dozens of Units

Nearly six months after his turbulent elevation to run India’s biggest conglomerate, Natarajan Chandrasekaran is assembling a team of dealmakers to refocus some of the group’s biggest businesses, expand its financial services and consumer businesses and sell or merge dozens of smaller units, according to interviews with senior executives. As many as one-third of the group’s 100-plus units could go as Chandrasekaran and his team try to balance the need to prune unprofitable businesses at the 149-year-old group with the Tata family legacy of social responsibility, according to officials who asked not to be named because the negotiations are private. Chandra, as the 54-year-old chairman is called by his colleagues, has set his primary task to bring more focus to a conglomerate that assembles buses in Africa, serves kebabs at London’s ritzy Bombay Brasserie and sells cheap bags of salt in Indian supermarkets among much else. There are plans to merge consumer and retail businesses, bring infrastructure firms under one umbrella, club defense units together and combine technology firms, according to the people.

tata sons

“Chandrasekaran is hoping to increase the efficiency of the conglomerate and exit from businesses which don’t fit the group’s priorities or don’t have the ability to scale,” said Harish H. V., partner at consultancy firm Grant Thornton India LLP. “He is trying to simplify the complex conglomerate business structures, many of which were created in another era due to licensing and other regulatory reasons or the need to form joint ventures.” A Tata Group spokesman said the company does not comment on such matters.

The six largest listed Tata companies account for about 90 percent of the group’s market capitalization and total revenue, according to data compiled by Bloomberg. To help broker the reorganization, Tata Sons Ltd. in May hired former investment banker Saurabh Agrawal as chief financial officer, filling a role that had been vacant for five years. Agrawal was a key lieutenant of Kumar Mangalam Birla and helped the billionaire merge Grasim Industries Ltd. with Aditya Birla Nuvo Ltd. into a $9 billion industrial group, and Idea Cellular Ltd. with Vodafone Group’s local unit to create India’s largest wireless carrier. Shuva Mandal was picked to be the group’s legal counsel the same month, taking over from old Tata hand Bharat Vasani.

Chandra also hired Ankur Verma, who was Bank of America Corp.’s head of India for deals in technology, media, telecommunications, oil and gas, and Nipun Aggarwal who specializes in metals and mining deals. More hirings from banks are expected, the executives said. Chandra’s priority of restructuring Tata “is evident from the fact that the first set of core team members have come from investment banking and legal background,” Harish said. The marathon-running chairman’s focus is on repairing the group’s balance sheet, in line with his fitness-before-performance mantra. He has asked top executives across companies to focus on profit and cash reserves, not EBITDA, a measure that doesn’t include interest payments on loans and other costs, one of the people said. Total debt for 25 of Tata’s listed companies had swelled to 2.42 trillion rupees ($38 billion) as of March 2017, compared to 1.75 trillion rupees when Cyrus Mistry took over as chairman from Ratan Tata in December 2012. That doesn’t include about 350 billion rupees of debt at unlisted and unprofitable Tata Teleservices Ltd., which is high on Chandra’s list of urgent fixes.

Chandra may have to tread carefully in the way he reorganizes the group to avoid the fate of his predecessor. The board of Tata Sons ended Mistry’s four-year tenure and appointed Ratan Tata as interim chairman in October, citing a “trust deficit” and “repeated departures” from the group’s culture and ethos. Mistry, in turn, had accused Tata Sons and its largest shareholder Tata Trusts, of “oppressing” the interests of investors and had said Ratan Tata, through his chairmanship of Tata Trusts, had sought to control business decisions. Chandra, speaking to Tata Steel Ltd. shareholders on Aug. 8, said there have been challenges “owing to leadership change” at Tata Sons. The input from Ratan Tata and other owners in managing the company had been “value enhancing,” he said. Ratan Tata’s intervention to settle an acrimonious $1.2 billion lawsuit with NTT Docomo Inc. has paved the way for Chandra to sell or merge the troubled telecom unit. Tata Teleservices Ltd. has been battered by a tariff war unleashed by the entry of Mukesh Ambani’s Reliance Jio Infocomm Ltd.

All consumer-facing and retail businesses could be brought under one umbrella, according to the executives Bloomberg News spoke to. Under consumer products and retailing, Tata Group sells products ranging from bottled water to jewelry and footwear through a bevy of companies such as Tata Global Beverages Ltd., Tata Coffee Ltd., Titan Company Ltd., Trent Ltd. and Tata Unistore Ltd. Similar plans are being worked out for the defense units, the people said. Tata Advanced Systems Ltd., Tata Advanced Materials Ltd. and some of Tata Power Company Ltd. and Tata Motors Ltd. are part of group’s defense portfolio. Infrastructure firms may also be clubbed together while technology arms may be folded into Tata Consultancy Services Ltd., the company that Chandra helmed for more than seven years, making it Asia’s largest software services provider and Tata’s cash cow. Financial Services, currently a smaller piece in the group and mostly under closely held Tata Capital Ltd., is set to get more attention under the new chairman. “The management bandwidth, the financial resources, everything which is finite can be channeled in a proper way,” said Vishal Kulkarni, a Singapore-based analyst at S&P Global Ratings. “Rather than putting up resources in businesses that are not growing or not returning sufficient returns, it maybe better to pool it in companies which are the long-term focus.”

  • Bloomberg

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All You Need to Know About Bitcoin

What is Bitcoin?

Bitcoin‘s inventor, Satoshi Nakamoto, described Bitcoin as “A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System” in the original 2009 Bitcoin whitepaper – the document which created the roadmap for Bitcoin. To date, this is still the most simple and accurate description. Bitcoin is a consensus network that enables a new payment system and a completely digital money. It is the first decentralized peer-to-peer payment network that is powered by its users with no central authority or middlemen. From a user perspective, Bitcoin is perhaps best described as ‘cash for the Internet’, but Bitcoin can also be seen as the most prominent triple entry bookkeeping system in existence. It is also known as digital cash, cryptocurrency, an international payment network, the internet of money – but whatever you call it, Bitcoin is a revolution that is changing the way everyone sees and uses money.

The beauty of Bitcoin is that it requires no central servers or third-party clearing houses to settle transactions – all payments are peer-to-peer (P2P) and are settled in about 10 minutes – unlike credit card payments, which can take weeks or months before they’re finally settled. All Bitcoin transactions are recorded permanently on a distributed ledger called the “blockchain” – this ledger is shared between all full Bitcoin “miners” and “nodes” around the world, and is publicly-viewable. These miners and nodes verify transactions and keep the network secure. For the electricity they use to do this, miners are rewarded with new bitcoins with each 10-minute block (the reward is currently 12.5 BTC per block).

bitcoin

The Bitcoin protocol is also hard-limited to 21 million bitcoins, meaning that no more than that can ever be created. This means that no central bank, individual or government can come along and simply ‘print’ more bitcoins when it suits them. In this sense Bitcoin is a deflationary currency, and as such is likely to grow in value based on this property alone. Bitcoin is still a cutting-edge experiment in technology and economics, and like the worldwide web in 1995, its myriad potential, purposes and applications are yet to be decided. Is it just electronic money? A foundation for smart contracts and electronic shares? Is it underground and subversive, challenging the power of governments, or will it integrate into mainstream finance and go unnoticed? If you know the answers to any of these questions, or if you can figure out how to capitalize on them there may be many lucrative opportunities for you in the Bitcoin space.

The Bitcoin universe is changing fast and often – to stay ahead of the game it’s necessary to follow the news almost-hourly and discuss the latest events with other members of the community. Bitcoin.com exists to be a reliable information hub for beginners and industry insiders alike. That being said, ‘staying ahead of the game’ is not a necessity if you simply wish to use Bitcoin as a currency to purchase goods and services, or wish to accept Bitcoin for transactions – something thousands of people around the world do every single day.

No Central Command

Bitcoin isn’t owned by anyone. Think of it like email. Anyone can use it, but there isn’t a single company that is in charge of it. Bitcoin transactions are irreversible. This means that no one, including banks, or governments can block you from sending or receiving bitcoins with anyone else, anywhere in the world. With this freedom comes the great responsibility of not having any central authority to complain to if something goes wrong. Just like physical cash, don’t let strangers hold your bitcoins for you, and don’t send them to untrustworthy people on the internet.

Secure Your Wallet

There are several different types of Bitcoin wallets, but the most important distinction is in relation to who is in control of the private keys required to spend the bitcoins. Some Bitcoin “wallets” actually act more like banks because they are holding the user’s private keys on behalf. If you choose to use one of these services, be aware that you are completely at their mercy regarding the security of your bitcoins. Most wallets, however, allow the user to be in charge of their own private keys. This means that no one in the entire world can access your account without your permission. It also means that no one can help you if you forget your password or otherwise lose access to your private keys. If you decide you want to own a lot of Bitcoin it would be a good idea to divide them among several different wallets. As they saying goes, don’t put all your eggs in one basket.

Bitcoin Price

Like everything, Bitcoin’s price is determined by the laws of supply and demand. Because the supply is limited to 21 million bitcoins, as more people use Bitcoin the increased demand, combined with the fixed supply, will force the price to go up. Because the number of people using Bitcoin in the world is still relatively small, the price of Bitcoin in terms of traditional currency can fluctuate significantly on a daily basis, but will continue to increase as more people start to use it. For example, in early 2011 one Bitcoin was worth less than one USD, but in 2015 one Bitcoin is worth hundreds of USD. In the future, if Bitcoin becomes truly popular, each single Bitcoin will have to be worth at least hundreds of thousands of dollars in order to accommodate this additional demand.

bitcoin2

Bitcoin Exchanges

There are several ways to buy Bitcoin, but trusted exchanges are a great way to acquire Bitcoin. Because there are inefficiencies in the traditional banking system, exchanges will sometimes have slightly different prices. If the difference is too great, traders will buy low on one an exchange and sell high on another and close the gap. If an exchange constantly has substantially different prices than others, it is a sign of trouble and that exchange should be avoided. As with everything else, do your research and find an exchange you can trust. It’s also a good idea not to use an exchange as a wallet. Move your Bitcoin to your personal wallet so that you have control over your funds at all times. You can view a list of Bitcoin exchanges here.

Bitcoin Isn’t Completely Anonymous

Because all Bitcoin transactions are stored on a public ledger known as the blockchain, people might be able to link your identity to a transaction over time. Some companies offer various tools such as Bitcoin mixers to help achieve greater privacy, but it takes a huge amount of effort to use Bitcoin anonymously. You may want to follow your country’s tax regulations regarding Bitcoin in order to avoid trouble with the law, but you have the power not to should you choose to take that risk. To improve privacy, most newer Bitcoin wallets will use a new Bitcoin address each time someone sends bitcoins to you.

Unconfirmed Transactions

Bitcoin transactions are seen by the entire network within a few seconds and are usually recorded into Bitcoin’s world wide ledger called the blockchain, in the next block. While it’s possible that a transaction won’t be confirmed in the next block, in the vast majority of circumstances it is fine to accept a transaction as soon as it has been seen by the network. Unlike traditional payment systems, Bitcoin transactions are lightning fast and can be sent globally. Bitcoin is still relatively new, but with each passing day the technology becomes more reliable. It is more and more unlikely that a major bug will emerge in the system as time goes by, and people can trust the technology more with the passing of time. Each month people transact hundreds of millions of dollars worth of Bitcoin.

To know more about Bitcoin, visit this link

  • www.bitcoin.com

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Tata Global Beverages to Sell Russian Business to Skodnya Grand

Tata Global Beverages (TGBL) today said it will sell its business in Russia for an undisclosed amount to a local firm as part of restructuring operations in the country. TGBL has entered into an agreement to transfer ownership and operational responsibility of its Russian business unit to Skodnya Grand, the company said in statement. The agreement also includes grant of a 5-year renewable license agreement for its Russian brands to Tea Trade LLC, after completion of the transaction, it added. The deal is expected to be complete in 3-4 months and will be subject to regulatory approvals, TGBL said in a regulatory filing.

tata global beverages

As part of the agreement, TGBL said it will “transfer ownership and operational responsibility of the Russian business unit” and grant a five year license agreement for all its Russian brands to Tea Trade LLC after completion of the transaction. The new owner will takeover all the existing assets and operating liabilities, including employees, and supplier contracts, besides, continuing “to manufacture and sell our exisiting brands and products”, TGBL added. Without disclosing the value of the deal, the company said its subsidiary will receive “a consideration for transferring the assets and operating liabilities and license fee for the use of the brand”. Explaining the rationale behind the development, the company said: “Given the sustained macro-economic and other challenges in the market place and the performance in recent years post currency devaluation, the company believes that a change in the operating model is warranted”. TGBL said its Russian business had a sales turnover of Rs 226 crore in FY 2016-17 and had a loss after tax of Rs 29 crore. KRH RKL BAL

– TOI

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